Table of Content

Management Concept, levels of Management

Management concept
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in a group efficiently and accomplish objectives. All organizations require management for survival and growth. So, it is a universal phenomenon.
    According to "Henry Fayol" "To manage is to forecast and plan to organize, to command to coordinate and to control".
   According to "Koontz O Donnet", "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups".
    According to "Claude S. George", "Management consists of getting things done through others; a manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing the efforts of others".
    According to "Ricky W. Griffin", "Management is a set of activities directed at an organization's resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals efficiently and effectively".

Levels/ Hierarchy of Management:
Different levels of Management are determined by the organizational structure. There are commonly three levels/ Hierarchy of Management. They are;-
a. Top Level Management:
b. Middle-Level Management:
c. Lower Levels Management:
Management Concept, levels of Management

a. Top Level Management: Top Level management is the highest level of the management hierarchy. The Board of Director, Chief executive, President, executive director, Chief executive officer, and General managers are included in the top-level management. They are responsible for formulating the authority of the organization. The top levels of management also play a signification/essential role in the mobilization of organizational resources. Top-level management is also known as the backbone of the organization as well as the brain of the organization because they are responsible for the overall management and operation of an organization. 
1. Formulate the vision, mission, goals, strategy, and planning of the organization.
2. Appoint the executive for the middle as well as lower level management and issue necessary instructions for the preparation of the departmental budget, procedures, and schedules. 
3. Provides guidance and direction to middle and lower-level management, control and coordinate the activities of all department and maintain relationships with outsider.

b. Middle-Level Management: Middle-level management is the bridge that creates a link between top-level management and lower-level management. Departmental and division heads and managers like; production managers, marketing managers, finance managers human resources managers, etc are included in Middle-level management.  Middle-level managers are responsible for implementing and controlling plans and strategies which was formulated by the top-level management. The members of Middle-level management are more devoted time to organizing and directing functions.
1. Implementing organizational plans and policies as per the guideline of top-level management.
2. Train the lower-level managers and communicate the goals and policies to the lower level.
3. Communicate important information to the top level and evaluate the performance of lower managers.
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c. Lower Level Management: Lower level management is also known as operational level management or supervisory or first-line management. Supervisors, foremen, account officers, sales officers, etc are included in the Lower level of management. It directly indicated the worker of the organization. 
1. They work under top and middle-level management.
2. Communicate the lower level issue to the top, and middle level, and organizational goals and policies to the worker.
3. Maintain good relationships within the organization and discipline in the organization.
4. Motivate the worker for efficiency and Supervise, train, and guide the worker.

Reference: Principles of Management; Asmita Publication; BBS 1st years.

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