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Albert Einstein Biography | Early Life Education Contribution Awards & Facts

Albert Einstein Biography

Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (along with quantum mechanics). He is best known for his famous equation E=mc², which shows the relationship between energy and mass.

Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879. At an early age, Einstein was interested in mathematics and physics. Einstein began his formal education at the Polytechnic School in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1900, he graduated from the Polytechnic School in Zurich, Switzerland. After completing his graduation, Einstein struggled to find a job in academia and worked as a patent clerk for several years in Bern, Switzerland. During this time, he continued to work on theoretical physics in his spare time and published several papers that established him as a leading figure in the field.

Annalen der Physik is the oldest scientific journal on physics. Einstein published four groundbreaking papers in the German scientific journal Annalen der Physik in 1905. These papers, which came to be known as the "Miracle Year" papers, made significant contributions to the understanding of the nature of light, Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect, and the special theory of relativity. The special theory of relativity introduced the concept of space-time and revolutionized the understanding of time and space.

Throughout his career, Einstein continued to make important contributions to physics. Einstein was appointed professor at the University of Zurich in 1911, and he was appointed professor at the German University in Prague in 1914. In 1915, he published his theory of general relativity, which expanded upon the special theory of relativity by introducing the concept of gravity as a curvature of space-time.

In 1919, Einstein's theory of general relativity was confirmed by the observation of the deflection of light during a solar eclipse. This observational evidence established Einstein as a leading figure in the field of physics and this Einstein’s theory of general relativity made him famous around the world.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Einstein make important contributions to physics, including the development of the unified field theory, which attempted to unify the laws of physics. In addition, he made significant contributions to the field of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.

Einstein was also a lifelong advocate of peace and civil rights. He was a pacifist and a member of the Zionist movement. He was also an outspoken critic of the rise of fascism in Europe and the persecution of Jews. 

After Hitler came to power in Germany, Einstein immigrated to the United States in 1933. He accepted a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. He became an American citizen in 1940.

Einstein received many awards and honors throughout his life, including the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, the Copley Medal in 1925, and the Franklin Medal in 1935. He died in 1955 at the age of 76.

Einstein's work had a profound impact on our understanding of the nature of the universe and laid the foundation for many technological advances of the 20th century, including the development of nuclear power and the atomic bomb. His contributions to science and humanity are celebrated and studied to this day. 

In 1903, he married Mileva Marica and they had a daughter and two sons. Einstein divorced his first wife Mileva Marica in 1919 the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Lowenthal. Einstein's second wife died in 1936. After 19 years, Einstein also died in Princeton, New Jersey.

Name: Albert Einstein
Date of Birth: 14 March 1879
Died: 18 April 1955 (Aged 76)
Education: Federal polytechnic school in Zurich (Federal teaching diploma, 1900), University of Zurich (Ph.D., 1905)
Famous for: General relativity, Special relativity, Photoelectric effect, E=mc2 (Mass–energy equivalence), E=hf (Planck–Einstein relation), Theory of Brownian motion, Einstein field equations, Bose-Einstein statistics, Bose-Einstein condensate, Gravitational wave, Cosmological constant, Unified field theory, EPR paradox, Ensemble interpretation
Spouses: Mileva Marić (married. 1903; divorced. 1919), Elsa Löwenthal ​(married. 1919; died 1936)
Children: Lieseri, Hans Albert, Eduard
  • Barnard Medal (1920), 
  • Nobel Prize in Physics (1921), 
  • Matteucci Medal (1921), 
  • ForMemRS (1921), 
  • Copley Medal (1925), 
  • Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1926), 
  • Max Planck Medal (1929), 
  • Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1942), 
  • Time Person of the Century (1999)

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