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Prithvi Narayan Shah Biography | Early Life | Unification of Nepal | 5 Mysterious Facts | Died

Prithvi Narayan Shah Biography

 Prithvi Narayan Shah was the last ruler of the Gorkha kingdom and the first king to unify the Kingdom of Nepal. Prithvi Narayan Shah was born on 7 January 1723 in the town of Gorkha, which is located in present-day western Nepal. He was the first child of Nara Bhupal Shah and Kaushalyavati Devi.  Prithvi Narayan Shah spent his early years consolidating the Kingdom of Gorkha, which was his father's kingdom. At the age of 5 years, Prithvi Narayan Shah started his education through the appropriate ceremony. During that time, Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal took responsibility for educating Prithvi Narayan Shah. 

At the age of 15, Prithvi Narayan Shah married Indra Kumari Sen of Makwanpur Princess. Unfortunately, he returns empty-handed due to the disagreement between father-in-law King Hemkarna. In 1740, he had done a second married to Narendralaxmi, daughter of Ahiman Singh, a Rajput and local feudal head of Ara near Banaras. From a young age, Prithvi Narayan Shah was interested in the affairs of his father's state and soon began to take on these responsibilities. Prithvi Narayan Shah's father's dream was to conquer the Nuwakot but it was uncompleted. After the father's death, Prithvi Narayan Shah becomes king of Gorkha at the age of 20 years.  

Prithvi Narayan Shah's dream was to conquer the Nuwakot to fulfill his father's dream. At that time, the East India Company ruled India under the British. So, Prithvi Narayan Shah sealed his border and maintained friendly diplomatic relations with the neighboring kingdoms. When Prithvi Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha in the year 3 April 1743 A.D, it was yet a small state. Then Prithvi Narayan Shah decided to make Gorkha into a vast and strong state.  Before the unification of Nepal, there was a total of 54 states in Nepal which were divided into small kingdoms. Makawanpur, Bijayapur, and Chaudandi were three states of South-Eastern Terai. There were 24 states in the Gandaki province and 22 states in Karnali province, Along with Gorkha and Mustang, Bhaktapur, Kantipur, and Lalitpur made up the remaining five states.

List of Baise Rajya
1. Jumla, 
2. Doti, 
3. Jajarkot, 
4. Bajura, 
5. Gajur, 
6. Malneta, 
7. Thalahara, 
8. Dailekh District, 
9. Dullu, 
10. Duryal, 
11. Dang, 
12. Sallyana, 
13. Chilli, 
14. House of Tulsipur, 
15. Darnar,  
16. Atbis Gotam, 
17. Majal, 
18. Gurnakot,
20. Bhaktapur,
21. Lalitput, and 
22. Kantipur

List of Chaubise Rajya
1. Kingdom of Argh
2. Kingdom of Bajhang
3. Kingdom of Bhirkot
4. Kingdom of Butwal
5. Kingdom of Dhor
6. Kingdom of Dhurkot
7. Kingdom of Galkot
8. Kingdom of Ghiring
9. Kingdom of Garahun
10. Kingdom of Gorkha
11. Kingdom of Gulmi
12. Kingdom of Isma
13. Kingdom of Kaski
14. Kingdom of Khanchi
15. Kingdom of Lamjung
16. Kingdom of Musikot
17. Kingdom of Nuwakot
18. Kingdom of Paiyun
19. Kingdom of Palpa
20. Kingdom of Parbat
21. Kingdom of Pyuthan
22. Kingdom of Rising
23. Kingdom of Satahun
24. Kingdom of Tanahun

Conquering Kathmandu Valley was necessary to unify Nepal but it was almost impossible for Prithvi Narayan Shah to conquer Kathmandu Valley. Prithvi Narayan Shah first planned to conquer all the kingdoms around the Kathmandu valley. After conquering all the kingdoms around the Kathmandu Valley, it became easy for Prithvi Narayan Shah to conquer the Kathmandu Valley. 

In 1743 CE, Prithvi Narayan Shah failed to conquer Nuwakot. Conquering Nuwakot was very important for the unification of Nepal as it was the trade route from Gorkha to Tibet between Kathmandu and Gorkha district. Prithvi Narayan Shah takes the first steps to push Nuwakot aside by maintaining friendly relations with the chiefs of Lamjung, Tanahun, and Palpa. Prithvi Narayan Shah sent troops from three directions to conquer Nuwakot.

Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered makwanpur, on 21 August 1762. Makwanpur was one of the gateways to Nepal from Bengal. The  Makwanpur battle lasted for eight hours between the Gorkha Kingdom and the Makwanpur Kingdom.  In the Makwanpur battle, 60 troops died from the Gorkha side and 400 troops died from Makwanpur. 

Another goal of Prithvi Narayan Shah was to conquer all the places around the Nepal Valley. Prithvi Narayan Shah's strategy was to create an economic crisis in the Nepal Valley, which made it easier to conquer the Nepal Valley. Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Kritipur for the first time in 1757. Unfortunately, Prithvi Narayan Shah failed to conquer Kritipur. At that time, Kalu Panda was killed in the battle of Kritipur, and the death of Panda caused a great loss to the Gorkhas. In 1765, Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Kirtipur but failed to win, but in the third attempt, he conquered Kirtipur.

In 1768 Prithvi Narayan Shah battle in Kathmandu which is also known as the Battle of Kathmandu. The Battle of Kathmandu is a battle that took place during the unification of Nepal. In that war, King Jayaprakash Malla defeated and raise the Gorkha kingdom in Kathmandu Valley. In the same year, Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked   Lalitpur and conquered it. Lalitpur is one of the three kingdoms in Nepal centered in the Kathmandu valley.

In 1769, Prithvi Narayan Shah fought a battle at Bhaktapur, also known as the Battle of Bhaktapur. The Battle of Bhaktapur was the final campaign to unify Greater Nepal. After conquering Bhaktapur, Prithvi Narayan Shah took control of Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas. 

Prithvi Narayan Shah died at the age of 52. Before dying, he gave important and famous lectures on the social life, development of Nepal etc, also known as the "Divine Sermon (ईश्वरीय उपदेश)"; "Nepal is like a yam between two stones(नेपाल दुई ढुङ्गा बीचको तरुल जस्तै हो)", ("मेरा साना दुखले आर्ज्याको मुलुक होइन यो चार बर्ण छात्तिश जात सबैको साझा फूलबारी हो"।(This is not the nation gained by my trifle efforts, this is the garden of all 4 main castes and 36 sub-castes)"

Name: Prithvi Narayan Shah
Born: January 11, 1723, Gorkha Palace, Gorkha
Died: January 11, 1775, Devighat
Spouse: Queen Narendra of Nepal
Parents: Nara Bhupal Shah, Kaushalyavati Devi
Children: Pratap Singh Shah, Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal, Bilas Kumari
Siblings: Bisaul Budana Devi, Padma Kumari Devi, Dala Mardan Shah, Prithvi Pal Shah
Grandchildren: Rana Bahadur Shah, Sher Bahadur Shah, Bidur Bahadur Shah
Contribution: Unification of Nepal

        Wikipedia; Biography of Prithvi Narayan Shah, 
        Telegraph Nepal; Biography of Prithvi Narayan Shah

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